Volume 12


Challenges and Perspectives of Hate Speech Research

Edited by Christian Strippel, Sünje Paasch-Colberg, Martin Emmer & Joachim Trebbe

Berlin, 2023
DOI 10.48541/dcr.v12.0 (SSOAR) | ISBN 978-3-945681-12-1

Abstract: This book is the result of a conference that could not take place. It is a collection of 26 texts that address and discuss the latest developments in international hate speech research from a wide range of disciplinary perspectives. This includes case studies from Brazil, Lebanon, Poland, Nigeria, and India, theoretical introductions to the concepts of hate speech, dangerous speech, incivility, toxicity, extreme speech, and dark participation, as well as reflections on methodological challenges such as scraping, annotation, datafication, implicity, explainability, and machine learning. As such, it provides a much-needed forum for cross-national and cross-disciplinary conversations in what is currently a very vibrant field of research.


Printed copies can be ordered from Boehland & Schremmer Verlag Berlin at www.boehland-schremmer-verlag.de or simply by e-mail (form template).

Table of Contents

Sünje Paasch-Colberg, Christian Strippel, Martin Emmer & Joachim Trebbe
Sharing is Caring: Addressing shared issues and challenges in hate speech research


Afonso de Albuquerque & Marcelo Alves
Bolsonaro’s hate network: From the fringes to the presidency

Zahera Harb
Journalists as messengers of hate speech: The case of Lebanon

Dagmara Szczepańska & Marta Marchlewska
Unfree to speak and forced to hate? The phenomenon of the All-Poland Women’s Strike

Anna Litvinenko
The role of context in incivility research

Tomiwa Ilori
Beyond the law: Towards alternative methods of hate speech interventions in Nigeria

Sana Ahmad
Who moderates my social media? Locating Indian workers in the global content moderation practices

Christian Schemer & Liane Reiners
Challenges of comparative research on hate speech in media user comments: Comparing countries, platforms, and target groups


Liriam Sponholz
Hate speech

Lena Frischlich
Hate and harm

Susan Benesch
Dangerous speech

Marike Bormann & Marc Ziegele

Julian Risch

Sahana Udupa
Extreme speech

Thorsten Quandt & Johanna Klapproth
Dark participation: Conception, reception, and extensions

Gina M. Masullo
Future directions for online incivility research


Babak Bahador
Monitoring hate speech and the limits of current definition

Salla-Maaria Laaksonen
The datafication of hate speech

Christian Baden
Evasive offenses: Linguistic limits to the detection of hate speech

Matthias J. Becker & Hagen Troschke
Decoding implicit hate speech: The example of antisemitism

Jae Yeon Kim
Machines do not decide hate speech: Machine learning, power, and
the intersectional approach

Anke Stoll
The accuracy trap or how to build a phony classifier

Laura Laugwitz
The right kind of explanation: Validity in automated hate speech detection

Paddy Leerssen, Amélie Heldt & Matthias C. Kettemann
Scraping by? Europe’s law and policy on social media research access

Jakob Jünger
Scraping social media data as platform research: A data hermeneutical perspective

Paula Fortuna, Juan Soler-Company & Leo Wanner
Dataset annotation in abusive language detection

Jaime Lee Kirtz & Zeerak Talat
Futures for research on hate speech in online social media platforms

Strippel, C., Paasch-Colberg, S., Emmer, M., & Trebbe, J. (Eds.) (2023). Challenges and perspectives of hate speech research. Digital Communication Research. https://doi.org/10.48541/dcr.v12.0

This book is published open access and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY 4.0).
The persistent long-term archiving of this book is carried out with the help of the Social Science Open Access Repository and the university library of Freie Universität Berlin (Refubium).